Optical Distortions in Architectural Glass

Review of Categorization, Evaluation and Measurement Methods


  • Thomas Henriksen Henriksen Studio
  • Edwin Stokes Henriksen Studio
  • Christian Louter Delft University of Technology
  • Mauro Overend Delft University of Technology


This paper is a review of methods to determine optical distortion in architectural glass, with a focus on the methods described in the current available standards and guidelines. References from building projects are used as reference points in the review of the methods. In addition to the review initials measurement studies are performed in a laboratory to determine the physical phenomena behind the optical distortion. The paper concludes on the different types of optical distortion seen, the methods which were used for the survey and how it corresponds to the current standards and guidelines, with a proposal for future research directions. Based on the findings in this paper it is suggested that the best method to determine optical distortion is to measure the changes in milli diopters, based on the current methods utilized for monolithic glass when measured in transmission. However, this method would need to be expanded to laminated glass, IGUs and potentially to curved glass, as well as a method to measure optical distortion in reflection. These methods will have to be developed through further research to better understand the causes behind the different optical phenomena.





Optical & Thermal Performance