Design and Build of a Warped Tram Station Roof in Delft


  • M. Eekhout TU Delft
  • W. Lockefeer TU Delft
  • D. Staaks Octatube




In 1992 Walter Lockefeer and Mick Eekhout designed an office for the Glass Association in Gouda with a flamboyant glass envelope, which ended as runner-up in an architectural competition. The design was classical in architectural sense and futuristic in technical sense: it contained a pre-stressed glass membrane. In 2002 Octatube introduced the use of twisted tempered glass panels in the realization of the City Hall of Alphen aan den Rijn NL. Since then further research of the structural behaviour of twisted glass panels has been carried out by Dries Staaks, leading to a profound knowledge about its quantitative behaviour as well as quantitative approach on stresses and stability. The latter is referred to as the “Law of Staaks”. On the basis of the developed theory the application of twisted panels has been extended and proven to be a valuable contribution in order to realise free form twisted glass envelopes. Although the theory was investigated and set up after the first application in Alphen, it was only after establishment of this very theory that several buildings could be provided with accurately engineered twisted roofs and flat roofs with twisted parts, where the glass panels were even insulated / laminated glass panels. The 1992 design, which was not chosen out of disbelief concerning the innovative state of its glass façade, could be entirely built today from the trustworthy glass technology. The integral innovation approach as a bridge between fundamental research, technical development and application design, each with its own habits and peculiarities, but in mutual understanding and support, shows that integral incremental developments on many levels pay off and produce new technologies for use in architecture. This contribution ends with the application of a glass roof for a warped glass roof surface, making use of the maximum cold warping possibilities of laminated glass panels.





Projects & Case studies


cold-twisted, blob-design, cold-bent, double curved architecture, blob architecture